Footnotes and Endnotes

Your instructor may give you special instructions on the use of footnotes. Use the form your instructor recommends. However, the APA Publication Manual calls for two kinds of footnotes: "Content footnotes and copyright permission footnotes." (p. 105).

You will not often use content footnotes which expand on data included in the body of your work. If it is extraneous, delete it. If it is to the point, put it in the body.

Copyright permission footnotes, also generally unnecessary in undergraduate work, are numbered sequentially through the paper. Usually you can quote at length from copyrighted material, at least up to five hundred words, without permission.

Footnotes should be summarized on a separate page at the end of your paper titled, Footnotes, and appear sequentially. Here are examples of potential footnotes:

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For a book, initial use:


For a work in an anthology:

For an introduction, preface, foreword, or afterword:


For a signed magazine article:

For a newspaper article,

Endnotes serve much the same purpose but are simpler. Using endnotes (as we do in this piece), give the author's name and the page number. If the author's name is in your text as written, just supply the page number. If you wish to cite more than one work for the same data, provide author's name and the page number followed by a semi-colon, then the other author's name and the page number. (Gibaldi and Achtert 160-200).

The crux of using your research is to weave it creatively with your own ideas, to give it particular meaning through your own lens, and to ensure that your readers can use you knowledge to build on their own.

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Bibliographic and Reference Formats

Your instructor may give you special instructions for bibliographies and reference pages. However, every form includes, usually in alphabetical order:


The MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers and the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA) both provide authoritative formats for bibliographic and reference usage. However, they differ in form and content. We found the MLA Handbook more useful. APA is the standard in school and counseling psychology, rehabilitation and counselor education, and several other disciplines. Be sure to know which format is expected by your instructor and department. The first half of the bibliography for this book is done in APA style (American Psychological Association - Kenseth) while the second half uses MLA (Macrorie - Wright).

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